ENTANDROPHRAGMA UTILE PDF
Entandrophragma utile is a deciduous Tree growing to 45 m (ft) by 30 m (98ft) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone (UK) The plant is not self-fertile. Suitable. Entandrophragma utile in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) , U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. BOTANIC DESCRIPTION. Entandrophragma utile is a large tree up to 60 m and more in height, with a DBH of more than cm. Crown regular with few.
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Sipo, acajou sipo, acajou assim Fr. It is suitable for construction, flooring, vehicle bodies, boxes, crates, carvings and turnery.
Mahogany photo – Entandrophragma utile – G | Arkive
The bole is traditionally used for dug-out canoes. Wood that can not be valorised as timber may be used as firewood and for charcoal production.
The bark is used in traditional medicine in Central Africa. Bark sap is taken or used as a wash to treat stomach-ache and kidney pain, it is rubbed in to relieve rheumatism, and it is dropped into the eyes to treat eye inflammations and into the ear to treat otitis.
A massage with a bark maceration is considered useful as tonic and stimulant. Charred and pulverized bark, mixed with salt and palm oil, is rubbed into scarifications to treat headache. In Cameroon the bark is used to treat malaria. In Nigeria the bark is claimed to heal engandrophragma ulcers.
The fruit valves have been used as spoons. Presently, sipo is still an important export timber, mainly from the Central African Republic and Congo. Entandrophragma utile is an important timber species of Ghana for export.
Properties The heartwood is reddish brown to purplish brown, and distinctly demarcated from the pinkish white to enyandrophragma brown, up to 6 cm wide sapwood. The grain is slightly interlocked, texture moderately fine. Quarter-sawn surfaces are irregularly striped. The wood has a faint cedar-like smell. It air dries rather slowly, and may be liable to splitting and distortion. However, there seems to be considerable variation in drying characteristics.
The risk of distortion during drying increases when more highly interlocked grain is present. The wood kiln dries satisfactorily, but material with much interlocked grain may give difficulties. The rates of shrinkage are medium, from green to oven dry 2. Once dry, the wood is moderately stable in service. The wood saws and works fairly easily with both hand and machine tools, with only slight blunting effects on cutting edges. Finishing usually gives good results, with a nice polish, but the use of a filler may be needed.
The wood is not liable to splitting in nailing and screwing, with good holding properties. The gluing, staining and polishing properties are satisfactory, but the steam bending properties are poor.
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A tendency of charring is present in drilling operations. The wood is moderately durable, being moderately resistant to powder-post beetle, pinhole borer, termite and marine borer attacks. The heartwood is very resistant to preservatives. This supports the traditional medicinal use of the bark against peptic ulcers in Nigeria. Bark extracts showed fungicidal activity against Pyricularia oryzae. The lactone entandrophragmin, tetranortriterpenoids called utilins, heptanortriterpenoids called entilins, methyl angolensate and an ergosterol derivative have been isolated from the bark.
Some entilins showed moderate in-vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum.
The seeds contain limonoids and steroids, but no tannins and saponins. Description Deciduous, dioecious large tree up to utike —65 m tall; bole branchless for up to 40 m, straight and cylindrical, entandrophrgma to — cm in diameter, with blunt buttresses up to 3 —5 m high, sometimes extending into large surface roots; bark surface silvery grey to greyish brown or yellowish brown, fissured and becoming scaly with elongate scales, inner bark pinkish red, fibrous, without distinct smell; crown dome-like, with few but massive branches; young twigs brownish short-hairy but soon glabrescent, marked with leaf scars.
Leaves alternate, clustered near ends of twigs, paripinnately compound with 12— 14—32 leaflets; stipules absent; petiole 5—15 cm long, with 2 faint lateral ribs or slightly winged at base, rachis up to 45 cm long, slightly grooved; petiolules 1—5 mm long; leaflets opposite to alternate, oblong-elliptical to oblong-lanceolate or oblong-ovate, 3.
Inflorescence an axillary or terminal entanrrophragma up enntandrophragma 25 cm long, short-hairy. Flowers unisexual, regular, 5-merous; pedicel 2—3 mm long; calyx cup-shaped, shortly lobed, 0. Seeds 8—11 cm long including the large apical wing, medium to dark brown. Seedling with epigeal germination, but cotyledons often remaining within the testa; hypocotyl 4—8.
Other botanical information Entadrophragma comprises about 10 species and is confined to tropical Africa. It belongs to the entandriphragma Swietenieae and is related to LovoaKhaya and Pseudocedrela.
Secretory elements and cambial variants: Gasson Growth and development Young seedlings grow slowly; root development takes considerable time. In Ghana seedlings reached only up to entanrrophragma m tall after 4 years, in silviculturally treated forest up to 1.
Under nursery conditions, however, seedlings can reach 40 cm tall in 6 months and 75 cm in one year. Fruit production starts when trees have reached bole diameters above 50 cm, and this has implications for forest management; minimum felling diameters should be well above 50 cm to allow natural regeneration. Fruits mature at the end of the dry season, about one year after flowering. Fruits often fall unopened. However, they usually open on the tree and the seeds are dispersed by wind, although most seeds seem to fall close to the mother tree.
However, it can also be found in evergreen forest. In Uganda it occurs in rainforest at — m altitude. It prefers well-drained localities on deep soils.
Entandrophragma utile is characterized as a non-pioneer light demander. Natural regeneration is often scarce in natural forest, but it has also been reported as abundant. Regeneration in large forest gaps is reportedly poor, but seedlings perform well in small forest gaps. Saplings of Entandrophragma utile are more light-demanding than those of other Entandrophragma spp.
Propagation and planting The seed weight is about g. Seeds can be stored for about 3 months in sealed containers in a cool place, but insect damage, to which they are very susceptible, should be avoided, e. Germination starts 13—19 days after sowing. Repeated soaking of the seeds is reported to improve germination. The seeds are liable to rotting and should hardly be covered with soil.
Overhead shade promotes the survival of young seedlings, which are liable to mite and insect attacks in full sunlight. The seedlings usually die under full light conditions. They are physiologically well adapted to heavy shade and make efficient use of low light intensities.
When seedlings are grown in pots, it should be taken into account that they develop a long taproot; roots should be cut back several times in the 1—2-year-long period that the seedlings are raised in the nursery. Stumps and striplings have been used for propagation, but the success rate of stumps was low. Locally in Liberia, one tree of more than 60 cm bole diameter per 6 ha can be found. In southern Cameroon exploitable trees occur very scattered; the average density is up to one tree of more than 60 cm bole diameter per 20 ha, and the average wood volume is up to 0.
In Gabon Entandrophragma utile is uncommon, in most regions even rare. Damage to seedlings due to Hypsipyla robusta shoot borer attack may be high in other countries as well. Larvae of the beetle Xylosandrus compactus bore into young shoots, while fruits and seeds are attacked by larvae of the lepidopterous insect Mussidia nigrivenella. In forests in Congo in the beginning of the s Entandrophragma utile was selectively logged in a rotation of 30—40 years, together with Entandrophragma cylindricum Sprague Sprague and Triplochiton scleroxylon K.
Entandrophragma utile – Wikipedia
Handling after harvest Freshly harvested logs float in water and can thus be transported by river. Genetic resources The commercial interest in the valuable timber of Entandrophragma utile has resulted in extraction of utlle individuals from the forest in many regions, e.
In some regions it has even become near to extinction, e. Prospects The low growth rates under natural conditions, the long time needed to reach maturity in terms of fruit production and poor dispersal ability of the seed seem to be serious drawbacks for sustainable management of Entandrophragma utile populations, making very long rotation cycles inevitable.
It has been suggested that seed supplementation may be necessary to obtain sufficient regeneration in sustainably ytile forest. Mycorrhizal inoculation seems to have potential for improving seedling establishment. It has also been suggested that intensive silviculture, possibly involving the use of shifting cultivation in a taungya-like system, is needed to achieve sustainable management. Entandrophragma utile does entandrophrsgma seem to be a logical choice for planting in agroforestry systems entandorphragma its early growth is too slow.
The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Volume 4, Families M—R. Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Tropical Forestry Papers Useful trees and shrubs for Uganda: Flora entqndrophragma Tropical East Africa.
Compilation of data on the mechanical properties of foreign woods part 3 Africa. Shimane University, Matsue, Japan, pp. Liberian high forest trees. A systematic botanical study of the 75 most important or frequent high forest trees, with reference to numerous related species.
Agricultural Research Reports2nd Impression. Part 1 — Africa. Tavole di cubatura di diciotto specie tropicali. Annali Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali Seedling growth of three co-occurring Entandrophragma species Meliaceae under simulated light environments: Woody plants of western African forests: Gastroprotective effects of an aqueous extract of Entandrophragma utile entandrophtagma in experimental ethanol-induced peptic ulceration in mice and rats.